The paper deals with problem of the Athenian Myth on aotochthony.
SummaryMaximus’ idea of appropriation of the divine will by deified humans, in any consistent interpretation, would mean their deprivation of their own freedom – exactly in the same manner as it could be in the case of servitude to sin. Maximus’ own logic, however, was paraconsistent when applied to the case of deification (whereas not to the opposite case of the servitude to sin). A recourse to a paraconsistent deontic logic was not a uniquely Maximian tool even in the Middle Ages and could serve as an inspiring example for logicians today.
In this paper, we consider anti-smoking policy in Russia and the socioeconomic factors that influence an individual’s decision to smoke. Among various factors, we investigate the individual time preferences of Russians. To estimate individual time preferences, we use an experiment in which survey respondents are given hypothetical money prizes. We find that being middle-aged, being unmarried and having parents who smoke are positively correlated with both men and women’s likelihood of taking up smoking in Russia. We consider the possible endogeneity of an individual’s health status and find a positive relationship between smoking and the time preferences of Russians. Our findings confirm that decisionmakers should devote their efforts primarily to developing restrictive anti-smoking policy. The choice of policy measures should be guided by the individual characteristics of target population groups. Social advertising, public lectures and preventive care should be actively engaged in forming public attitudes towards smoking.
In this research we analyze the demand for performing arts. Since the observed demand is limited by the capacity of house, one needs to account for demand censorship. The presence of consumer segments with different purposes of going to the theatre and willingness-to-pay for performance and ticket characteristics compels to account for heterogeneity in theatre demand. In this paper we propose an estimator for prediction of demand that accounts for both demand censorship and preferences heterogeneity. The estimator is based on the idea of classification and regression trees and bagging prediction aggregation. We extend the algorithm for censored data prediction problem. Our algorithm predicts and combines predictions from both discrete and continuous parts of censored data. We show that the estimator is better in prediction accuracy compared with estimators which account for censorship or heterogeneity of preferences only.
The aim of this paper is to study the influence of chief executive officers' overconfidence on corporate research and development (R&D). We analyze a sample of 766 firms from the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands between 2008 and 2013. We use 3 measures of managerial overconfidence: the press coverage of chief executive officers, his/her age, and his/her experience in the industry. Our results show that the firms run by overconfident managers actually invest more in R&D expenditures, even after controlling for country, industry, and time factors. Overconfident managers not only spend more on R&D but also amplify the effect of financial determinants of R&D such as firm liquidity or profitability. Nevertheless, overconfident managers do not invest efficiently in R&D, and these expenditures can negatively affect the value of the firm.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the demand for tickets in the Brazilian State Championships focussing in the impact generated by the brand teams as well as the play-off matches in the demand for tickets and, consequently, in the match day revenues. Design/methodology/approach – An equations system by three-stage least square estimator is employed. The data set comprises 1,114 matches from Mineiro, Carioca and Paulista Championships over the seasons 2013-2015. Findings – All explanatory variables increase both attendance and match day revenues. However, the most important goal is the distribution of wealth found. The presence of brand teams in those championships provides a financial aid for smaller teams. Practical implications – The proposals from the mass media to exclude the brand teams and design those championships exclusively in play-off stages should not be implemented by the policymakers. On the contrary, rearranging the design of the competition with more matches between small teams and brand teams may help to all of them. Originality/value – The paper contributes to introduce the Brazilian State Championships in the sport economics literature as well as evidences the redistribution effect of wealth among clubs.
Russian foreign policy in Central and Eastern Europe in the post-Cold war period followed the track of the evolution of its general foreign policy strategy. After the Second World War countries of Central and Eastern Europe were either Soviet republics or fell under the sphere of interests of the USSR. The following dissolution of the socialist bloc and the Soviet Union itself resulted in fundamental geopolitical changes in the region, erasing the solid military and political frontier that divided Europe on the borders of the GDR, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. New states took shape out of what was left of former socialist republics. The region became split and uneven politically. Moscow itself was no longer a political center for Central and Eastern Europe. It became the capital of a remote state that had no common borders with most of the Eastern European countries. Russia-NATO relations that used to be the basis of the continental politics lost their sense of certainty, having opened up room for experiments. Russia faced the challenge of shaping its foreign policy afresh, taking into consideration the changing environment on its western border. The geopolitical configuration of Central and Eastern Europe is what makes this region especially important for Russian foreign policy. Its intermediate position in between Russia and the Euro-Atlantic makes it an arena for either cooperation or rivalry between the two power centers on the continent. Metaphorically put, this region may serve as a bridge over the chasm between Russia and NATO, or it may become a battlefield for the two. Apart from security concerns, there is also a factor of gas and oil transit via this territory, which explains Moscow’s interest to ensure the safety of energy supply through Eastern to Western Europe, where its end consumers are. Scholars of Russian foreign policy in Central and Eastern Europe largely disagree on its motives and goals. The key disagreement is between two approaches. One group of scholars argues that Russian policy inherently aims for expansion encouraged by imperial complexes (McFaul, 1998; Sherr, 2013; Umland, 2016) or ethnic and nationalist impulses (Rutland, 2014; Zevelev, 2014; Motyl, 2016). The other group believes that Moscow’s primary concern is to ensure its national security and protect its values (Bogaturov, 2007; Mearsheimer, 2014; Tsygankov, 2015; Graham, 2017). Academic debates on issues of Russian foreign policy today are overly politicized. It is not clear how soon the academic sphere will break free from the extremes of the emotional load that is caused by the major conflict between Russia and the West over Ukraine.
The article examines how identity is represented through space in Anglo-Irish literature of the Troubles in the context of public multimodal public discourse. The paper addresses the structure and the functions of the space in Anglo-Irish novels of the Troubles within the framework of visual and verbal identity. It also focuses on verbal and visual ways of identification of the place in divided society as represented in Anglo-Irish literature. The analysis of the novels demonstrated that place identity is represented in the novels and function there as a recognizable landscape marker creating a historical background of the novels. It also performs several communicative functions. Visual and verbal identity represent community solidarity and unification. In case of identity cognition of the other community representative they are seen as a an indicator of a potential threat. A more detailed view of four Troubles novels gives a picture of how place is conceptualized as an integral part of national identity.
This study is a corpus-based examination of denominal verbs with figurative meanings in the texts of the British business broadsheet The Financial Times. Based on the study of word-formation as the source of metaphoricity (Steen et al., 2010; Janda, 2011, 2014; Brdar & Brdar-Szabó, 2013) and propositional analysis (Pankrats, 1992; Steen, 2002), it presents the classification of such verbs and discusses how and why denominal verbs with metaphorical meanings were used in the journalistic discourse about business. The empirical base of this study was a 621-thousand-word corpus of the Financial Times articles from the years 2014-2015. The authors conclude that the commonness of denominal verbs is due to the conceptual and evaluative functions of metaphor. There is consideration of the implications of these findings for linguists, translators, ESP students and those interested in corpus research into metaphor.
This study provides readers with new information about key drivers of performance in the emerging area of eSports. Competitive computer gaming (eSports) is becoming increasingly popular, and the number of gamers and amount of prize money is growing. We therefore explore some key country-level characteristics that may contribute to players’ success, measured as money won. We use gamers’ prize earnings aggregated by country and a hurdle model to understand the determinants of performance. The results show that a 1% increase in GDP per capita leads to a 2.2% increase in prize money per capita. Country population is not statistically significant in the outcome model. This finding may indicate that eSports talents are not uniformly distributed across the world population. Surprisingly, post-Soviet and planned or post-planned economies are more likely to participate in eSports.
This article analyses the determinants of attendees’ tourism spending at professional basketball matches during the 2012/2013 season. For this purpose, it applies a linear quantile regression and considers the effect of specific sports event variables which have rarely been assessed in this type of study. Empirical results confirm that the determinants of expenditure have a different influence depending on the spending level. Individual spending is principally influenced by the origin of the attendees as well as by several other sports factors such as the time the match takes place, the admission price, or the sporting level of the rival team. The study establishes two levels of spending to identify the different behaviors that correspond to each of the factors under study. The findings could provide a useful input into tourism strategies related to the hosting of sport events.
Purpose – This paper aims to examine how a company can build and develop its relational capital in a digital environment. It searches for proxy-indicators for digital relational capital and explores their impact on company performance. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is designed to sit in the cross-section of two concepts – Big Data and Intellectual Capital.We analyze eight metrics of digital relational capital (SEMrush rank, Trust flow, Domain authority, MozRank, Number of pages indexed in Yandex and Google, Thematic Citation Index by Yandex, Alexa Rank) and examine their impact on company performance by conducting a two-stage fixedeffect regression. The empirical part of the paper is based on a database of more than 1,000 Russian public companies from 2010-2016. Findings – The study justifies eight Big Data-based metrics that enable the estimation of the digital relational capital of a company. Empirical evidence of a significant impact on corporate performance is provided. Moreover, a U-shaped configuration of obtained relationships allows for a better understanding of the phenomenon of digital relational capital and has managerial implications. Originality/value – Companies can indirectly influence the proposed metrics. The study gives specific recommendations regarding these metrics to allow companies to optimize their performance. In addition, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical research on relational capital through Big Data in Russia.
Representing ‘The Irish national self’ in Anglo-Irish literature of the Troubles is one of the key topics, which is inseparable from British national identity since these communities are intermingled in Northern Ireland and compete for space and political dominance. Little attention of critics was paid to the analysis of linguistic means of constructing national identity. This paper examines how national identity is formed in literary discourse within the framework of discourse analysis in the Troubles novels. I suggest that in the novels considered national identity manifests itself through a purposeful choice of discourse strategies (construction, destruction and justification) and language means. Conceptualizing both identities is based on conceptualizing space and religious identity but what makes them distinctive is narrating political history. Irish national identity, as represented in the Troubles novels, is based on the idea of victimization and trauma memorization, while British national identity relies heavily on mythologizing historical victory. Both identities are constructed in binary oppositions to a conflicting community and are mostly negative.
We analyse the influence of the board of directors and ownership structure on the valuation of initial public offering (IPOs) in the Spanish capital market during the period 1998–2013. After controlling for other influences such as the auditor’s reputation, the underwriter’s reputation and the level of information asymmetry, our results lend strong support for the hypothesis of the influence exerted by ownership concentration over the level of IPO underpricing. Moreover, we find a nonlinear relationship between the proportion of shares in the IPO belonging to members of the board of directors and the level of underpricing. Other IPO and firm characteristics such as the size of the offer and its structure also prove to be statistically significant. Finally, we find that the market cycle influences the valuation of IPOs, as the relationship between the market return and the initial IPO return is positive and statistically significant.
People are intent to make similar choices especially in consumer goods markets. To address both explanations of this persistence, i.e. state dependence and heterogeneity in preferences, we use random coefficient logit model based on scanner panel data on juice purchases. The product differentiation of the chosen category allows us to model three dimensions of state dependence on brand, size and flavor characteristics. We provide evidence that the persistence in brand choices is positively correlated with persistence in size and flavor choices, thus the consumer pattern is prone to be inertial or variety seeking in every product characteristics. Simultaneously we show that the more sensitive to price and promotional activities consumers are, the less inertial is their behavior.
Gregory of Nyssa at the outset of his ‘Against Eunomius’ cites Eunomius, where the latter speaks about “greater and lesser” activities. However, discussing this quotation later in the treatise, Gregory misinterprets the words of Eunomius. He reads Eunomius as if he applied the principle of ‘the more and the less’ not to activities but to substances. Such interpretation cannot be proved on the basis of what Eunomius actually wrote. Actually, the two opponents (Gregory of Nyssa and Eunomius) used the same Aristotelian position, which prohibits the application of the principle of ‘the more and the less’ to the category of substance. This position was used by the two polemists in order to argue against each other. At the same time, Gregory developed his own philosophical system founded on the principle of ‘the more and the less’ in the course of this polemics with Eunomius.
It has been shown how static and dynamic characteristics could be used for a comparative assessment of social, environmental, and economic development, as well as the development balance in social, economic, and ecological spheres. The proposed methodological toolkit has made it possible to identify problem areas and stably manifested dynamic disproportions in the investigated regions, which require corrective actions in order to ensure sustainable development
With an increased interest in machine processable data and with the progress of semantic technologies, many datasets are now published in the form of RDF triples for constituting the so-called Web of Data. Data can be queried using SPARQL but there are still needs for integrating, classifying and exploring the data for data analysis and knowledge discovery purposes. This research work proposes a new approach based on Formal Concept Analysis and Pattern Structures for building a pattern concept lattice from a set of RDF triples. This lattice can be used for data exploration and in particular visualized thanks to an adapted tool. The specific pattern structure introduced for RDF data allows to make a bridge with other studies on the use of structured attribute sets when building concept lattices. Our approach is experimentally validated on the classification of RDF data showing the efficiency of the underlying algorithms.