Russian foreign policy in Central and Eastern Europe in the post-Cold war period followed the track of the evolution of its general foreign policy strategy. After the Second World War countries of Central and Eastern Europe were either Soviet republics or fell under the sphere of interests of the USSR. The following dissolution of the socialist bloc and the Soviet Union itself resulted in fundamental geopolitical changes in the region, erasing the solid military and political frontier that divided Europe on the borders of the GDR, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. New states took shape out of what was left of former socialist republics. The region became split and uneven politically. Moscow itself was no longer a political center for Central and Eastern Europe. It became the capital of a remote state that had no common borders with most of the Eastern European countries. Russia-NATO relations that used to be the basis of the continental politics lost their sense of certainty, having opened up room for experiments. Russia faced the challenge of shaping its foreign policy afresh, taking into consideration the changing environment on its western border. The geopolitical configuration of Central and Eastern Europe is what makes this region especially important for Russian foreign policy. Its intermediate position in between Russia and the Euro-Atlantic makes it an arena for either cooperation or rivalry between the two power centers on the continent. Metaphorically put, this region may serve as a bridge over the chasm between Russia and NATO, or it may become a battlefield for the two. Apart from security concerns, there is also a factor of gas and oil transit via this territory, which explains Moscow’s interest to ensure the safety of energy supply through Eastern to Western Europe, where its end consumers are. Scholars of Russian foreign policy in Central and Eastern Europe largely disagree on its motives and goals. The key disagreement is between two approaches. One group of scholars argues that Russian policy inherently aims for expansion encouraged by imperial complexes (McFaul, 1998; Sherr, 2013; Umland, 2016) or ethnic and nationalist impulses (Rutland, 2014; Zevelev, 2014; Motyl, 2016). The other group believes that Moscow’s primary concern is to ensure its national security and protect its values (Bogaturov, 2007; Mearsheimer, 2014; Tsygankov, 2015; Graham, 2017). Academic debates on issues of Russian foreign policy today are overly politicized. It is not clear how soon the academic sphere will break free from the extremes of the emotional load that is caused by the major conflict between Russia and the West over Ukraine.
People are intent to make similar choices especially in consumer goods markets. To address both explanations of this persistence, i.e. state dependence and heterogeneity in preferences, we use random coefficient logit model based on scanner panel data on juice purchases. The product differentiation of the chosen category allows us to model three dimensions of state dependence on brand, size and flavor characteristics. We provide evidence that the persistence in brand choices is positively correlated with persistence in size and flavor choices, thus the consumer pattern is prone to be inertial or variety seeking in every product characteristics. Simultaneously we show that the more sensitive to price and promotional activities consumers are, the less inertial is their behavior.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between export activity and firm performance for a positive impact of foreign direct investments. We also analyse two possible causes of the effect: technology transfer and financial support. The theoretical background is rooted in the resource-based approach taking into account multinational companies’ perspective and the specifics of emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach - We propose testable hypotheses based on a review of the theory. To test the hypotheses, we build a sample of over 500 Russian public manufacturing firms covering the period from 2004 to 2014 and estimate regression models. Given concerns about endogeneity, the instrumental variable approach for panel data, using GMM-estimator, is implemented. Findings - Consistent with the view that foreign direct investments generate spillover effects, our results support the positive impact of foreign ownership on the link between exports and firms’ performance. Our results underline the importance of foreign ownership: shareholders from developed countries can provide benefits to exporting companies through transferring advanced technologies and loosening financial constraints by lowering interest and raising availability of bank loans.
Originality/value - We provide new insights on the relationship between exports and firm performance. Given our focus on Russia, a market with high potential to draw foreign investments, our research sheds some light on how emerging country firms can benefit from having foreign shareholders with paying attention to geographical distribution of such investments. Specifically, through the overcoming of technological barriers and loosening of financial constraints, we show empirically that foreign capital can make up for weak local institutional infrastructure and enhance the company’s’ returns from internationalization.
How do public-private partnerships (PPPs) differ from traditional public procurement and what role should governments play in them? This article views PPPs as collaborative projects with imperfect information between parties. Typical public procurement contracts tackle asymmetric information problems yet limit feasibility of projects: some are not profitable enough to ensure private party participation. Partnership improves feasibility; this justifies PPPs as a form of public good provision and demonstrates how they differ from procurement. Four UK and Russian cases of PPP projects are analyzed within the above framework, focusing on types of contracts, contributions of both partners, and specific partnership elements.
Providing a comprehensive overview of Russia’s foreign policy directions, this handbook brings together an international team of scholars to develop a complex treatment of Russia’s foreign policy. The chapters draw from numerous theoretical traditions by incorporating ideas of domestic institutions, considerations of national security and international recognition as sources of the nation’s foreign policy. Covering critically important subjects such as Russia’s military interventions in Ukraine and Syria, the handbook is divided into four key parts:
Part I explores the social and material conditions in which Russia’s foreign policy is formed and implemented.
Part II investigates tools and actors that participate in policy making including diplomacy, military, media, and others.
Part III provides an overview of Russia’s directions towards the United States, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Eurasia, and the Artic.
Part IV addresses the issue of Russia’s participation in global governance and multiple international organizations, as well as the Kremlin’s efforts to build new organizations and formats that suit Russia’s objectives.
The Routledge Handbook of Russian Foreign Policy is an invaluable resource to students and scholars of Russian Politics and International Relations, as well as World Politics more generally.
This research focuses on parents’ participation in their children’s education via self-organizing through non-profit organizations (NPOs). The aim of this article is to uncover the factors which have an impact on Russian parenting organizations participating in collective coproduction in schooling. Quantitative analysis revealed three groups of explanatory variables: a) the “economic” variables, namely GRP per capita and poverty rate; b) a “high status” of a school; and c) variables capturing the “federal district effect” on the probability of collective coproduction. Results of the quantitative analysis highlight the significant discrepancies in regional conditions for emerging NPOs in coproduction in schooling.
This study uses a combination of multinational enterprises and dynamic capabilities perspectives to illustrate how the involvement of foreign investors is able to contribute to a company’s corporate performance. Using Russian companies as an empirical sample and applying PLS-SEM, we test hypotheses regarding the impact of dynamic capabilities in terms of absorptive, adaptive and communicative capabilities, on the relationship between foreign ownership and performance. Findings indicate that dynamic capabilities fully mediate the process of foreign direct investments transformation into firm’s results. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanism by which dynamic capabilities enhance the positive effects of foreign direct investments on business performance, and advance the theoretical understanding of how a dynamic capabilities concept could be incorporated into multinational enterprises theory in the framework of relationships between companies from economies with different knowledge endowment.
The goal is to develop a regional innovation model for managing the redistribution of transport flows through their local deceleration. Achieving this goal implies justification of the innovative approach as a key development factor; specificity of the innovative approach for motor transport networks; developing model of organizational efficiency and traffic safety; application this model to the organization and safety of traffic on Perm regional highways. The following methods were used in the article: data analysis method, mathematical modeling method, design and survey method, statistical method. In this paper, we present an innovative automated traffic light system that allows you to redistribute the load on the transport network by applying technical means of organizing traffic without changing the basic parameters of the carriageway.
State owned theatres are balancing between maximizing attendance and revenue. Using Perm opera data we reveal an effect of price on demand for various types of performances and places. Using censored quantile regression we estimate parameters of demand function. We reveal that demand is weakly elastic by price. Moreover, we prove that estimates of demand function parameters are biased if we not control for quality of performances and seats and for limited capacity of a house.
The success of the foreign students training depends on the socio-cultural adaptation in the host country. The international character of modern education is expressed in the growth of academic mobility, the increase in the number of foreign students. Successful adaptation contributes to rapid inclusion in the learning process, improving the quality of training for young people. Presented article presents a theoretical analysis of the problem of adaptation of foreign students in connection with belonging to a culture: polyactive, reactive, polychronic, highly contextual, with a predominance of collectivism-individualism. Within the framework of theoretical analysis, mechanisms, coping strategies and adaptation criteria were analyzed.
The book prepared for the purposes of The 2nd World Congress on Logic and Religion, organised by the Institute of Philosophy of the University of Warsaw.
The book contains the final version of the abstracts submitted by majority of speakers.
A 364-Day Calendar Encapsulated in the Liturgy of the Seventh Sabbath of the Betä Ǝsra’el of Ethiopia
As any other genre, academic paper can be characterized by its own specific rules and fitches. The authors assume that academic style fitches called in this research “style markers” can be modelled by means of ontology engineering. The article is aimed at describing the academic style markers ontology design and its practical using. The designed ontology is divided into two levels. The first level provides information about linguistic terms and the second level consists of style markers, which were suggested by experts in linguistic. It is assumed that two tasks will be solved on the basis of developed ontology. The first task is generating lexical-semantic templates, which is used to identify the list of markers in a text. Due to ontology approach and Domain Specific Language (DSL) technologies applying users can be able to extend and modify marker templates. The second task is developing an expert system rules for text style enhancement.
This study explores the recovery in the Market Value Added (MVA) of European companies after the recent global economic crisis in 2008–2009. It introduces empirical evidence that intangible-intensive strategy in human and relational capital reinforces speed of the after-crisis correction for companies. Based on a panel dataset of more than 1600 listed corporations this research aims to discover drivers of Market Value Added trends in 2011–2013. The established results contribute to the understanding of the advantages that companies can exploit for the recovery after systematic shocks of markets. Our study demonstrates that intangible-intensive strategy not always enabled faster recovery speed. Meanwhile, it provided year-to-year acceleration of MVA growth after crisis.
This article presents the results of a research dedicated to the correlation between cultural values and economic attitudes (n = 110 people). The participants belonged to the young (18 – 25 years old) generation and the adult (37 – 63 years) generation of Russian people. The goal of the research was to reveal a correlation between cultural values and economic attitudes among representatives of different generations of Russians. It has been found that for the adult generation, the “Power Distance” value is positively correlated with economic self-determination and the desire of having money. For the young generation, the “Power Distance” value is not associated with the growth of the welfare, and “Uncertainty Avoidance” encourages economic autonomy but does not create more opportunities for increasing personal material income; “Masculinity” does not bring along the economic self-determination. The study has also demonstrated that economic paternalism is most expressed among representatives of the young generation, and they are more ready to take economic risks in order to increase their income, but the chances of making their personal financial income higher are not as big as those of the adult generation.
This paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic factors—particularly, the rate of time preferences and alcohol consumption in Russia. The rate of time preferences shows an individual’s willingness to delay the utility from consumption to future periods of time. The relationship between this rate and indicators of alcohol consumption is examined separately for men and women. We find significant differences in men’s and women’s patterns of consumption of alcohol. Our findings suggest that the rate of time preferences, along with age, educational level, income, place of residence, and health substantially, affects an individual’s decision to drink alcohol. We show that employment status is endogenous to alcohol consumption and that estimating a system of binary equations is necessary.