Governments promote pro-environmental behavior explicitly, through regulatory provisions, or implicitly, by setting general environmental objectives without explicit requirements. Shared values and commitment to government objectives supposedly help towards greener behavior. We argue that the lack of explicit guidance counteracts, especially if green options are perceived as conflicting with strict regulatory requirements on other issues. In Russian public procurement, organizations are subject to either a rigid procurement law, or a flexible law, or both; neither law formalizes environmental priorities or approaches. We design a survey on practices of green procurement, collecting 223 responses from the whole range of organizations subject to public procurement regulation. Results from probit regressions, robustified on further 800 responses from an additional survey and 250 000 official procurement records, show that regulatory rigidity hinders green practices. Federal authorities are more likely to apply environmental criteria than local governments, but this is rather due to the expertise of their staff than to their commitment to governmental objectives. Publicly funded institutions are less likely to adopt green procurement than state corporations. Caution and avoidance of unintended contraventions seem to impede adoption of green procurement. Provision of information, guidance and improved expertise can help overcome this effect.
The paper aims to analyse the efficiency of efficiency of state support for small and medium enterprises provided through the public procurement mechanisms in the Russian Federation. Preferences in public procurement for this category of business are one of the tools for implementing the state policy of small business support. We consider the original database of procurement procedures conducted in accordance with the Federal Law No 44-FL and No223-FL in 40 Russian regions in 2017. Using econometric models, we estimate the level of competition in both procurement procedures conducted for all types of participants and procedures conducted only for SME’s. We also identify and evaluate the determinants affecting rebate of contracting authorities, such as regional characteristics, characteristics of contracts and characteristics of contracting authorities. The results of the study prove that granting preferences for SMEs by conducting special procurement procedures only for SMEs provides a greater access for SMEs to procurement procedures and has a positive effect on the level of competition (the number of applications submitted and admitted to participation) and does not require additional state costs. This study contributes to the academic) discussion about the efficiency of preferences for small and medium enterprises in the public procurement system. Moreover, it proves the efficiency of the existing support measures in the public procurement system in the Russian Federation from the position of contracting authorities (the government). The results of the study can be used by contracting authorities and authorized bodies when planning procurement, as well as by suppliers when determining a strategy of participation in procurement procedures; they can also be applied to adjust public procurement policy.
In modern Russia, new regulatory acts are published annually, preferences for small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs) change, and the degree of involvement of enterprises in the country's economic processes is growing. There is a problem of evaluating the appropriateness of public policies. Are SMEs in the Russian Federation improving and are the economy growing faster by attracting new players to the public procurement market? Is the number of current and planned preferences for SMEs in the contract system of the Russian Federation sufficient to achieve the stated goals of the state? The study attempted to answer the questions posed.