Governments promote pro-environmental behavior explicitly, through regulatory provisions, or implicitly, by setting general environmental objectives without explicit requirements. Shared values and commitment to government objectives supposedly help towards greener behavior. We argue that the lack of explicit guidance counteracts, especially if green options are perceived as conflicting with strict regulatory requirements on other issues. In Russian public procurement, organizations are subject to either a rigid procurement law, or a flexible law, or both; neither law formalizes environmental priorities or approaches. We design a survey on practices of green procurement, collecting 223 responses from the whole range of organizations subject to public procurement regulation. Results from probit regressions, robustified on further 800 responses from an additional survey and 250 000 official procurement records, show that regulatory rigidity hinders green practices. Federal authorities are more likely to apply environmental criteria than local governments, but this is rather due to the expertise of their staff than to their commitment to governmental objectives. Publicly funded institutions are less likely to adopt green procurement than state corporations. Caution and avoidance of unintended contraventions seem to impede adoption of green procurement. Provision of information, guidance and improved expertise can help overcome this effect.
The purpose of this study is to analyze an internal labor migration in 1945-1953 (till the Stalin’s death) in USSR. The research is conducted based on Molotov Oblast (modern Perm Krai) archive data related to the period. The migration in the region was conditioned by evacuation of large metallurgic, mechanical engineering, timber production facilities away from front line over 1941-1945. In addition to State Archive of the Perm Krai records the relevant files of Perm State Archives of Social and Political History were analyzed.
The main migration patterns are described in the article in an attempt to identify key factors for return migration. As a result of analysis of an extensive data array (mostly presented by the letters, acts and statements of All-Union Communist Party Bolsheviks and Communist Party of the Soviet Union), it is shown that the unsuitable living conditions and social difficulties faced in host region served as a root cause of return movement. The research introduces new unpublished archive documents that clarify overall character of the internal labor migration in USSR after the end of WWII.
The article analyzes the documents deposited in the State Archives of the Perm Krai in order to reveal their information potential, determine the completeness, representativeness, reliability and possibilities of use in the study of migration processes in the region and the country as a whole.
Referring to Perm Zemstvo, this article considers the role of out-of-school activities of Zemstvo establishments in overcoming relapses into illiteracy, i.e. the loss of literacy skills and the return of the state of illiteracy. The Zemstvo leaders themselves, who were closely connected with the organisation of public education, were among the first to pay attention to this problem. The article highlights two main areas of activity of the Zemstvo in this field based on the analysis of materials of the Zemstvo records management such as journals of the Perm Provincial Zemstvo Assembly, reports, and periodicals. The two areas are the organisation of activities to improve literacy and the creation of an infrastructure to fight and prevent illiteracy. The activities of Perm Zemstvo in this area were aimed at organising Sunday, revision, and other types of schools and classes, libraries, and public readings. It was Sunday and revision and extracurricular classes and other activities that helped to maintain and improve the existing literacy rate, as well as prevent the recurrence of illiteracy. The infrastructure consisted of organisational measures proper and forms of Zemstvo’s activity in adult education, institutions, specialists that were only being formed in the early twentieth century, i.e. “adult education specialists” (Rus. vneshkolniki) that were seen as necessary, and material objects. The study shows that, despite the low results in some areas, the activities of the Zemstvo to prevent and overcome relapses of illiteracy in general were a definite step aimed at solving important sociocultural problems and were essential for the development of extracurricular education in this historical period.
This essay discusses the stage-by-stage process of the formation of the Department of Humanities at the Perm campus of HSE University. The authors pay main attention to two priority areas of work, these are theoretical and applied problems of digital humanitarian research, economic and social anthropology of Soviet society.
The article analyzes the educational and methodological foundations of teaching in the zemstvo schools of the Perm province in the second half of the XIX century. According to Regulations on the provincial and district zemstvo institutions, zemstvos could not influence the pedagogical side of education. Individual attempts of zemstvos to influence the internal, educational, side were suppressed, zemstvo decisions and resolutions were suspended or canceled as not included in the circle of affairs entrusted to them. However, the Perm Zemstvo, through the involvement of teachers in teaching “optional” subjects in zemstvo schools, allocations for the purchase of textbooks, manuals, visual and other educational materials, the introduction of teaching methods and technologies by Zemstvo teachers, largely contributed to changing the educational process in the region, raising the general cultural level of the population, developing creative abilities and improving its way of life.
Timely evaluation of cardioembolic stroke (CES) caused by atrial fibrillation is critical from the point of view of the possibility of prescribing effective secondary prevention with oral anticoagulants. Insular lesion is considered as a promising neuroimaging marker of CES.
Objective: to analyze the role of insular cortex lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain as a potential neuroimaging marker of the pathogenetic subtype of ischemic stroke (IS).
Patients and methods. 225 patients in the acute period of IS were examined. Depending on the stroke etiology, patients were divided into three groups: cryptogenic stroke (CS; n=99), CES (n=45), and non-CES (n=81). All patients underwent an MRI of the brain to analyze the insular cortex lesions. In 57 patients, foci of cerebral infarction were additionally marked manually on axial slices of diffusion-weighted MRI using the Anatomist software. The calculated MRI characteristics of foci for CES and non-CES groups were used to construct a decision tree in the WEKA 3.6 package. Echocardiographic markers of atrial cardiopathy were assessed in all patients – the left atrium (LA) emptying fraction and LA function index; in 68 patients, the concentration of serum NT-proBNP was also assessed.
Results and discussion. The insula was affected in 12% of patients: most often in CES (33%), significantly less often in CS and non-CES (6 and 7.4%, respectively), without significant differences between the latter groups. The presence of insula lesion in relation to CES has a sensitivity of 33% and a specificity of 93% (p=0.002); odds ratio 6.25; 95% confidence interval 2.22–17.63. In most patients, the posterior insular cortex was involved in the pathological process. Isolated insular infarction occurred in only one patient with CES, while the involvement of the insula and adjacent zone, and the combination of insular infarction with territorial infarction, were observed more often. The group of patients with insular lesions was distinguished by the predominance of women, greater severity of stroke at admission, less deficit at discharge, larger LA diameter, lower LA emptying fraction, and functional index. CES was four times more common in the insular lesion group, while CS was two times more common in those without insular lesions. Insula involvement identifies three out of five CES patients according to the decision tree. Further analysis of the total lesion volume can locate almost all remaining patients with CES: they are characterized by the indicator >12 sm3.
Conclusion. Insular lesions allow reliable differentiation of patients with CES and non-CES and can be considered a potential marker of the cardioembolic subtype of IS, which requires further investigation.
Currently, there is a trend for companies to participate in Demand Response (DR) market, which requires them to reduce energy consumption during peak hours. Underground mining enterprises (UEM) are energy-intensive and for them participation in such programs is especially relevant. The main consumer of electricity at UEM is the ventilation system, mainly the main fan unit (MFU). The article presents the DR service architecture at UEM, in which the basis for reducing power consumption at a given time is the prediction of the required performance of the MFU. Decrease in MFU performance can be planned (for example, during lowering and lifting of workers along he ventilation shaft) and unplanned. The paper presents the architecture of the DR service and considers the case of a possible unscheduled decrease in the MFU capacity based on the results of modeling the air distribution between the shafts in the digital twin with a predicted change in the parameters of the outside air entering the UEM. In the case of enabling such reduction, the energy management platform will be able to reduce the power consumption at a given time.
This paper considers scientific and applied aspects of algorithmic and software design for cyber-physical systems (CPS) of buildings. A CPS of a building is a basic element of IT architecture within SmartCity approach. It represents a set of devices, which control life support systems integrated into a premise, means of communication, and the computing resources necessary for user services. In a building’s CPS, all equipment and subsystems are combined into a single ecosystem to improve comfort and security, as well as reduce operating costs and resource savings. The paper investigates requirements for building’s CPS software. The groups of design patterns are presented, which in practice significantly reduce the time for programming and configuring the building’s CPS elements and increase interoperability of developed information applications. CPS algorithms are considered in context of Internet of Things.
The need for accurate balancing in electricity markets and a larger integration of renewable sources ofelectricity require accurate forecasts of electricity loads in residential buildings. In this paper, we considerthe problem of short-term (one-day ahead) forecasting of the electricity-load consumption in residentialbuildings. In order to generate such forecasts, historical electricity consumption data are used, presentedin the form of a time series with a fixed time step. Initially, we review standard forecasting methodologiesincluding naive persistence models, auto-regressive-based models (e.g., AR and SARIMA), and the tripleexponential smoothing Holt-Winters (HW) model. We then introduce three forecasting models, namelyi) the Persistence-based Auto-regressive (PAR) model, ii) the Seasonal Persistence-based Regressive (SPR)model, and iii) the Seasonal Persistence-based Neural Network (SPNN) model. Given that the accuracy ofa forecasting model may vary during the year, and the fact that models may differ with respect to theirtraining times, we also investigate different variations of ensemble models (i.e., mixtures of the previ-ously considered models) and adaptive model switching strategies. Finally, we demonstrate through sim-ulations the forecasting accuracy of all considered forecasting models validated on real-world datagenerated from four residential buildings. Through an extensive series of evaluation tests, it is shown thatthe proposed SPR forecasting model can attain approximately a 7% forecast error reduction over standardtechniques (e.g., SARIMA and HW). Furthermore, when models have not been sufficiently trained, ensem-ble models based on a weighted average forecaster can provide approximately a further 4% forecast errorreduction.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Formal Concept Analysis, ICFCA 2021, held in Strasbourg, France, in June/July 2021.
The 14 full papers and 5 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 32 submissions. The book also contains four invited contributions in full paper length.
The research part of this volume is divided in five different sections. First, "Theory" contains compiled works that discuss advances on theoretical aspects of FCA. Second, the section "Rules" consists of contributions devoted to implications and association rules. The third section "Methods and Applications" is composed of results that are concerned with new algorithms and their applications. "Exploration and Visualization" introduces different approaches to data exploration.
Background and Purpose Despite the continuing efforts in multimodal assessment of the motor system after stroke, conclusive findings on the complementarity of functional and structural metrics of the corticospinal tract (CST) integrity and the role of the contralesional hemisphere are still missing. The aim of this work was to find the best combination of the motor system parameters, allowing classification of patients into three predefined groups of upper limb motor recovery.
Methods 35 chronic ischemic stroke patients (47 [26–66] y.o., 29 [6–58] months post-stroke) with only supratentorial lesion and unilateral upper extremity weakness were enrolled. Patients were divided into three groups depending on the upper limb motor recovery. Non-parametric statistical tests and regression analysis were used to investigate the relationships among structural and functional motor system parameters, probed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In addition, stratification rules were tested, using a decision tree classifier to identify parameters explaining motor recovery.
Results Fractional anisotropy (FA) ratio in the internal capsule (IC) and absence/presence of motor evoked potentials (MEPs), were equally discriminative of the worst motor outcome group (96% accuracy). MEP presence diverged for two investigated hand muscles. Concurrently, for the three recovery groups’ classification, the best parameter combination was: IC FA ratio and Fréchet distance between the contralesional and ipsilesional CST FA profiles (91% accuracy). No other metrics had any additional value for patients’ classification.
Conclusions This study demonstrates that IC FA ratio and MEPs absence are equally important markers for poor recovery. Importantly, we found that MEPs should be controlled in more than one hand muscle. Finally, we show that better separation between different motor recovery groups may be achieved when considering the whole CST FA profile.
This paper examines people's willingness to separate collection of plastic waste. The study is based on a questionnaire survey of Perm residents and visitors, the data were analyzed using econometric methods. We identified key factors that determine the ecological behavior of people - the importance for a person of the benefits that he carries for the environment, the willingness to devote personal time to measures to protect it and awareness of the environmental harm of plastic waste. On average, all things being equal, an individual's awareness of the environmental hazards of plastic leads to increase the probability of his participation in the separate collection of plastic by 11.78%. On average, all things being equal, the proximity of containers for separate collection of plastic waste increases the probability that a person will participate in the separate collection of plastic by 45.57%. It should be noted that the probability of participation in a separate collection is lower for men than for women, all things being equal. Also, all things being equal, the probability of participation in the separate collection of plastic increases with age by 0.3%.